No Difference Between The Rich & The Poor

Consume food that is contaminated with germs, regardless of the status of the kitchen in which it was prepared, and you will be down with a bout of food-borne illness in a matter of time (hours, days, weeks depending on the germs involved), it’s as simple as that.

One universal truth about food-borne illness is that it doesn’t differentiate between the rich and the poor.

Whether you are living in the opulence of Asokoro in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja or in the squalor of the slums and shanties of Ajegunle in Lagos it makes no difference. Consume food that is contaminated with germs, regardless of the status of the kitchen in which it was prepared, and you will be down with a bout of food-borne illness in a matter of time (hours, days, weeks depending on the germs involved), it’s as simple as that.

However to effectively prevent foods-borne illness there is need to have some understanding of the dynamics of the germs that cause it.

These germs (permit me to use this term) need, amongst many other things, two very important requirements to thrive in food:


Temperature – germs that cause food-borne illness need the right temperature to germinate and multiply in food.
Time – they also need time to propagate (multiply) in food up to the levels capable of causing harm when consumed.

So two of the several ways of effectively “outflanking” these germs is to deny them the time they need to multiply to dangerous levels in the food and to deny them the right temperature that they need to be active. The flip side of the coin is that these bugs can be helped to do the damage they are known for by giving them enough time they need to propagate rapidly in the food and the right temperature they need to be actively metabolize in the food.

Food-borne illness causing germs are optimally active within the temperature range 4 Celsius – 60 Celsius (this temperature range is termed Danger Zone in food safety parlance) and they multiply rapidly in food within this temperature range. Outside this range the germs kind-of go to sleep at temperatures below 4 Celsius and they are essentially destroyed at temperatures above 60 Celsius (typically 76Celsius) or the spore forming ones sporulate and remain inactive until the temperature decreases to favourable levels.

To prevent food-borne illness, the temperature of food needs to be kept out of this range. Cold foods like salad needs to be kept chilled at less than 4 Celsius and hot food needs to be kept at temperature above 60 Celsius.

Example of an easy way to cause food-borne illness is to prepare salad by 8 A.M in the morning and leave it out on a shelf in the kitchen at room temperature 36 Celsius to be served at a party at 4 P.M later in the evening. In this way the bugs have the right temperature and enough time to multiply to dangerous levels in the salad. The proper thing to do would have been to prepare the salad not too far in advance to the time of the party (two hours before it’s required will be fine rather than six hours in advance) and to keep it refrigerated at temperature less than 4 Celsius instead of leaving it out on the kitchen shelf. In the event that the food has to be prepared well in advance, then the safest thing to do is hold the food at temperature outside of the danger zone for the time being until it’s consumed either by using a hot cupboard or food warmer or Bain Marie to hold hot cooked food and using the refrigerator for salads and fruits. In this way the germs are denied the right temperature to propagate even though the time is available for them to do so.

Many a food-borne illness outbreak at parties have resulted from time and temperature abuse of the food. That is preparing food to far in advance and not storing at safe temperatures.

Two of the rules of thumb in preventing food-borne illness is to KEEP HOT FOOD HOT & COLD FOOD COLD and COOK IT JUST BEFORE ITS NEEDED.


“Germs No Dey Kill Africans”

I once had a chat with a lady who works as a kitchen staff in an hotel here in Eket. In the course of our discussion about food safety practices & food-borne illness she told me, with a wide grin on her mouth, “oga, germs no dey kill Africans” (literally translated “boss, germs do not kill Africans”). I shot back at her “germs no dey do wetin?” (“germs do not do what?”), she replied with certitude “e no dey kill Africans now” (“it doesn’t kill Africans”). O dear, I thought…where did she get this hypothesis from? In my mind I couldn’t help thinking that observing proper food safety practices when preparing meals for customers would be the least of her worries if she really believes that germs don’t kill Africans. So I asked her if she had ever seen or heard of folks who fall ill or die as a result of eating contaminated food. She replied curtly “dat one fit happen…if dem put something for food for the person” (“it’s possible…if the food is poisoned by someone of malicious intent”). As far as she was concerned, food-borne illness can only occur where food is deliberately contaminated or poisoned. The opinion of this individual is actually an exception and not the rule, I haven’t come across anyone with such thoughts before and after my encounter with her. Nevertheless this false conception that the African race is immune to germs gave me a cause of concern, especially that it was coming from a food handler who ought to have been trained in basic food safety, and demonstrated how much work still needs to be done in educating the public about the danger of food-borne illness and as a matter of fact, other communicable diseases.